Microcontrollers are very fast devices. But how they can know about the time? Microcontrollers need a clock signal in order them to know about the time. This clock signal is like a hard beat for them. Most Arduinos have a 16Mhz crystal. What that means is the Arduino microcontroller can execute up to 16 million instructions per second. Being so fast is great because you can slow it down with some commands. Here are the most important delay commands explanations which are taken from Arduino site.

Delay ()

Pauses the program for the amount of time (in milliseconds) specified as a parameter. (There are 1000 milliseconds in a second.)

delayMicroseconds()

Pauses the program for the amount of time (in microseconds) specified as a parameter. There are a thousand microseconds in a millisecond and a million microseconds in a second. Currently, the largest value that will produce an accurate delay is 16383. This could change in future Arduino releases. For delays longer than a few thousand microseconds, you should use delay() instead.

In the first lesson, we blink the led of the Lightino. You can see the delay commands between digitalwrite commands. In this delay, the microcontroller does nothing just waiting.

In order to generate some patterns with Lightino, we will make the LEDs on with RED, GREEN and BLUE colors.